The drive for artificial intelligence needs to consider the purpose for having intelligence. Being clever for clever’s sake has limited practical applications.
One prediction that divides opinion is the coming technology ‘Singularity’ – the point where computing intelligence is predicted to surpass human intelligence. I’m not a fan of the prediction. Not least because we still don’t fully understand how the organic brain works. To compare with manufactured technology based on raw processing power, speed and storage capacity feels fundamentally flawed.
Such predictions show a tendency to diminish the importance and value of human traits. Do emotions have no role to play? What sort of world would that create?
This was highlighted in an article yesterday – Why new technologies could never replace great teaching:
I cannot think of one single occasion when someone has stopped me to recall fondly about an inspirational and influential piece of computer software. And yet I get letters from former students eulogising over a teacher who changed the direction of their lives and without whom they would not be in the position they are today. That is the result of trust, about a relationship between the teacher and the child.
Nearly 10 years ago, I attended an analyst conference where the following comment was made:
A well implemented Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system can help increase sales by 6%. An experienced salesperson will outsell a novice by 40%. Ask a salesperson what features they want in a CRM and they will say, ‘help me sell more stuff’. Ask a manager, and they will come up with a long list of requirements to improve reporting. End result: less customer-facing time and fewer sales…
And yet still organisations will invest untold amounts of money to come up with a system to eliminate the need for people. Why the desire to devalue human abilities? Is it because some people are uncomfortable with the messy chaotic state that is human nature? Or a fear that perhaps luck plays a far bigger part in outcomes than we’d like to admit?
Whatever the reasons, the unpredictability of human emotions define what it is to be alive. Before trying to replicate the human brain, perhaps more technologists should first ask: why do we have a brain?
Back in 2005, I attended a lecture at the Royal Society titled ‘The Puppet Master: How the brain controls the body’, delivered by Professor Daniel Wolpert. The talk was focused on the following:
In the world of organic matter, what differentiates animals and plants? The ones with brains can move.
If the whole point of having a brain is to give us movement, is the predicted technological singularity missing the point? Because the focus seems not to be on making machines move. If anything, it’s to allow us to continue to exist without moving at all. Some progress.
The Puppet Master talk explored the role of our senses in helping make optimal decisions:
Movement is surrounded by uncertainty, noise, that affects and influences our senses. The criteria for making the best decision is not always obvious.
If noise influences and interrupts our senses, and our brains have to adapt to it in order to make optimal decisions about movement, why don’t our senses do a better job of filtering and reducing noise? It is probably because there are times when we need noise… Without it, parents probably wouldn’t wake up when the baby starts crying.
I love digital technology. It has democratised access to knowledge and helped flatten the world. As someone who does not have a trace of blue blood in their heritage, I consider that to be a wholly postive outcome. But it is important to also still appreciate what it is to be human. That there is value way beyond being able to process data.
- Why new technologies could never replace great teaching – The Guardian, June 2013
- If this were a pill, you’d do anything to get it – Washington Post, April 2013
- The Technological Singularity – Wikipedia
Flickr image: ‘Human / Robot’ kindly shared by Emilie Ogez
Talk by Marja Brandon at Microsoft, December 2004
An amazing talk by an amazing woman. If only more schools could/would adopt these methods for teaching. This talk was originally posted direct to the library and has been moved to the blog. The following are notes taken from her talk given at Microsoft in December 2004.
Marja founded a school in Seattle – Seattle Girls School – because she decided the school system was failing girls and making it difficult for them to graduate in science and maths subjects. Too many distractions led to missing crucial phases of learning – mid School years (5th – 8th grade, equivalent to junior/primary school in the UK). By the time many get to college, their maths simply isn’t strong enough to do science.
Designed a completely original curriculum – no text books! Based around teaching 4 core skills:
- Critical and creative thinking
- Problem posing and solving
- Bold thinking – don’t think outside the box, live outside the box
- Community connectedness – connect everything they do to the real world
Step 1: Potential
Right from the start, the girls are told that the school’s mission is to build the next generation of world leaders. The kids sit up straight – you light up their ambition and instantly they can start to vision it. Everyone’s scores go through the roof compared to their ‘expected’ start points. They don’t just sit back and wait for education to flow over their heads, they participate. They start to hold each other to that potential. (Not talking about ‘gifted’ kids, this applies to all <– for related note, see ‘Art of Possibilities‘ where Benjamin Zander starts the by giving his students an ‘A’ grade and the year is up to them to decide how they deserve it.)
Step 2: Anti-bias mission
The school encourages as much diversity as possible (race, religion, family unit structure, abilities etc.) – when you get different kids bumping into each other, each one of those bumps is a learning opportunity.
Step 3: Apply what we now know about the brain
We have learnt more about neuro-science in the last 10 years than in the rest of our history. There is now a giant gap between neuro-science and education. What are we waiting for? Traditional class day ends at 3pm – it was designed for the agriculture calendar: run home and do the chores. Methods were based on schools for boys – right back to the Greek system when it was 4 boys to 1 teacher. Class sizes are 30 and growing, and they’re not just boys any more.
Marja included a big disclaimer at this point: No empirical back up to support what was about to be said. Don’t have lots of lovely research to be shown. Seen the evidence in play – wanted to try it, apply it and see if it works… and it does! Marja desperately wants to take this model and apply it at a public school.
The 9 Brain Rules
Marja took 9 brain rules from what we’ve learnt in neuro-science, and built the curriculum using them. These rules are based on studies from evolutionary biology – if you don’t believe in evolution (i.e. you’re an intelligent design purist), you won’t believe this stuff…
Rule #1: Meaning before detail
If you are on the plains of the Serengeti and a giant lion is hurtling towards you, you don’t stop and count the teeth. You think it’s going to eat you, you run first! Lesson: figure out the bigger meaning before the detail. This is applied to each year:
5th grade – ‘all creatures great and small’ – study what is life. Includes biodiversity, animals, organisms (hint: 5th graders + animals = good thing!) They have chickens at the school – project ‘Chicks in the hood’.
6th grade – ‘incredible machine’ – study the individual. They look at themselves, start looking at simple things, tools, machines, how they work… they do the body, then they do the machine, then they do the intersection between machine and body, study biotechnology, nanotechnology, robotics, ethics…
7th grade – ‘Seattle from the ground up’ – study the community. Examine the whole area that is Seattle, cover geography, geology, tectonics (Seattle is in earthquake territory), forces that shape the earth, forces that shape the community. They study governance law, constitutional law. One of their projects is to do a mock trial at the court house down town. Finally, they look into the future. Their final year assignment is ‘One month to change the world’ and what they propose has to last beyond the assignment.
8th grade – ‘The world and beyond’ – the sub-theme is to prepare them for graduation to high school. They start with an aviation theme. Applying ‘meaning before detail’ means they start with ground school, weather school and flight school. Every 8th grader does 2 flights in a 4-seater plane – one as co-pilot (get to do take-off, missed approach, and landing), and one as a cartographer in preparation for their mapping project. When they get back to school, one of the labs has been built as a hangar and they build a full size kit plane (the kit was donated). They do everything – the flight systems, physics, all the algebra that’s required for avionics, and they end up with a full size plane hanging out in the 8th grade lab. Amazing!
Back to meaning before detail – they flew first and then they came back into the lab to study, and it all made sense. What they were studying connected to what they were doing because they had experienced what it means to fly. Now that’s real-world application of what you’ve learnt.
Rule #2: Every brain is different
There are lots of kids who are told they are ‘learning-disabled’. Marja challenges that diagnosis. Every brain is different. Sure there are some ‘syndromes’ that can be identified, but a dyslexic child gets told they are different to ‘everyone else’ – these kids get the impression that their brain is broken. It affects their perception about what they can achieve.
Think of the brain as like a roadmap – we all have the same high ways and major junctions, but those little side roads, they are all different… All the stuff about learning styles – kinaesthetic, visual, linear-sequential etc. – it’s not about style, it’s simply how your brain routes information, what works for you.
When you have 30 children in a classroom, you have 30 different brains with 30 different routing preferences, and then there’s the teacher’s brain as well. As the teacher, you have to be working on a lot of different levels, and teaching in a lot of different modalities to engage all of those brains, and every one of those brains has something to offer.
Classic example: A girl comes home from maths class and she is really frustrated ‘I just don’t get it, forget it, I hate it, I’m so dumb, I’m never doing maths again’… and they become a humanities person. Girls have a habit of eradicating an entire subject based on one bad experience in the class room. Boy comes home from maths class ‘Aargh! I’m so frustrated, I hate this subject’. Now, interestingly, they don’t eliminate the subject from their curriculum, what do they do? ‘That teacher is so dumb he can’t teach his way out of a paper bag…’ It’s not as extreme as the girl’s reaction, but neither responses are healthy.
What causes these clashes? Usually the teacher is using a modality that doesn’t work for these children. A teacher who teaches by writing notes on the board – ‘you write this too, and then I’ll test you on what we wrote’ – won’t help someone who’s kinaesthetic (easy to spot – will fidget a lot, take things to pieces and put them back together to understand them).
One of the meta-goals for the school is teaching children to identify how they learn, what works for them and what doesn’t, and how to speak up when the method the teacher uses doesn’t work for them.
Rule #3: People are natural explorers
We did not develop, evolutionary, to sit back and be lectured at. Back on that Serengeti plain, you explored, tested, tasted, watched, observed. Seeing a snake with black/yellow stripes bite someone, and watching that person die, causes a mental note – avoid snakes with black/yellow stripes. You didn’t read the book on snakes, you explored, learned and acted.
So, we didn’t develop to sit and listen all day, yet that is exactly what we expect children to do today. And their attention span just can’t do it. We know from brain chemistry that your brain is more alert if you are moving – just getting up and stretching will create a more focused attention state. Research suggests we need to get the blood going every 9 minutes. When we sit down, our body assumes sleep cycle ‘OK, rest time…’ (note: traditional school uniform in the UK is not conducive to motion or getting dirty). This school is a project-oriented school. Children are in groups of 9, 12, 18. Teachers teach in grade-level teams – sometimes 1 teacher, 2 teachers… the children are constantly in motion, no lecture format (hence no text books).
Children don’t want to be told, they want to do, they want to learn for themselves. Compare the difference: ‘I’m going to tell you how things get blown up’ versus ‘I’m going to show you how things get blown up, and then you’re going blow some things up to’. Compare ‘We’re going to learn about planes’ versus ‘We’re going to build a plane’.
Rule #4: Sleep is important to the learning process
When you suffer from lack of sleep, it literally slows down your processing time, your attention to detail, and your recall. This is as true for children as it is for adults. From biology, what we now know is that children in adolescence (9th through 12th grade) go through a phase when their sleep cycle goes upside down. They are wide-awake at 10 at night. They can’t help it. Telling them to just go to bed won’t make any difference. As a result, their sleep cycle hits somewhere between 7 and 9 in the morning… the point when they are supposed to be off to school for the day… In addition, the mid-point between sleep cycles is the worst time of day. 12 hours from the mid-point of your last sleep phase you will hit a sleep cycle again – and that usually occurs around 2pm in the afternoon. This is the time to get up, take a walk, rest – it’s dead time for you.
Children have the exact same thing. But we aren’t letting them rest. They do school, they do after-school activities, they do homework, they go to bed, they get up and it starts all over. We aren’t letting them get enough sleep.
Rule #5: Repetition is critical for memory
You need to hear it again and again and again, but within distinct cycles – just repeating something over and over again is not meaningful repetition, it has to be in critical cycles. The school’s curriculum is completely integrated. You can’t build an
airplane without the physics and maths required. Once they’ve built the plane, they then get to build to full-size shuttle simulators. Their culminating event involves groups being locked in a simulator from 4pm until midnight. Their project has been to design a complete mission to mars, and they then carry out the mission in the simulator. They’ve got it all figured out, all the tools they need, they know what’s going to happen, they’ve studied everything (clue: that requires the same maths and physics as building the airplane.) But the teachers than throw in some problems, they’ve got a ‘red-alert’ button that can be activated, Star Trek style. The children have one line to mission control, and when things go wrong they can’t leave. They’ve got to figure out what to do, and still complete their mission to Mars. They’ve got to apply everything they’ve learned… oh, and quadratic equations are perfect for aviation. There comes the same maths again… that’s the kind of repetition that works.
Rule #6: We are visual learners
No matter what anyone says, 90% of the information we get is visual. Teachers have to incorporate this. Standing and lecturing doesn’t work, you’ve got to capture the children. When you say take out a book and open it, actually pick up the book and open it to demonstrate. Connect with those routing modalities.
Rule #7: Focused attention states facilitate learning
You cannot maintain the same level of focus for 40 minutes. Studies suggest that your brain can focus for 7 to 8 minutes on something, but then you need to do something different – get up and do an activity. It’s basic brain stuff.
Rule #8: Exercise aids learning
Already been demonstrated – if you’ve been reading this for a few minutes, get up and wave your arms about. Sit down, and you will find it easier to focus on the text…
Rule #9: Stressed brains don’t learn well
When your stress level is high, your processing and problem-solving abilities slow down, as does your memory. If you are suffering from chronic stress – serious illness, divorce etc. – those effects will debilitate your immune system. You’ll get sick more often, your sleep cycles will be affected. This stuff is true for children as well. Some children are coming from places where they don’t know if they will get any sleep, food, dad just lost his job, parents divorcing, whatever… these are chronic stress events for kids.
Quote “There’s a million miles from a kid’s neuron to the blackboard’. Children are bringing all that stuff to school and you are telling them to pay attention. It’s a pretty loaded statement – they can’t just leave all that stuff at the door.
The 10th Brain Rule: Anti-bias
So they are the 9 brain rules. There are also differences for boys and girls. Different areas of the brain develop in different sequences, which is why a lot of times you’ll hear that girls are better at language development and boys are better at structure and physical stuff. What typically happens? Each gender is encouraged to do what they are good at. What should happen? Don’t just play to those early strengths – give boys more opportunity to work on language and writing, give girls more opportunity to play with structure.
Sociologically we tend to follow what the brain does first and not try to influence it to develop more. Kids get put into the boxes – girls, go sit at the art table, boys go to the building blocks area. From a very early age, girls will be complimented for how they look, boys will be complimented for what they do. This stuff gets fixed very early in life and introduces bias that will continue straight through school, college, work and life. People don’t realise how embedded it is. (Side note: go watch your favourite TV show, watch the adverts – notice the gender stereotypes they are creating, targeting, confirming…)
Marja’s 10th brain rule: you have to learn anti-bias work at a very young age. By high-school, you can still influence some but most are already set. Middle-school is the most flexible age. If you can build up self-esteem at that age and give children the words and confidence to not be stereo-typed, it will save them when they get to high school. And this is just as important for boys as girls – boys who don’t fit their traditional stereotype face just the same challenges – they’ll get eaten up in the playground and risk never achieving their true individual potential. This applies to ALL biases <– related note: try Somebodies and Nobodies by Robert W. Fuller
Every Wednesday afternoon is dedicated to the internship programme. Internships are run as 6 week programmes – some taught on campus, off campus in the summer. The aim is to broaden the girls’ horizons. They get to participate in craft skills, mock trials, HTML programming, code breaking, any subject where a successful person or business will participate and show the girls what it’s like to pursue a passion and succeed. An advertising company participated and shut down their office on Wednesdays for 6 weeks – taught the children about the world of advertising, and gave them an account to work on for the project. They had to do a storyboard and come up with a pitch in 6 weeks. These are not mini-courses, they are intensive sessions and they breakdown those biased perceptions about what children ‘should’ do when
they grow up based on their initial ‘standing’ in life…
The Keys to better education
#1: It’s got to be connected learning. In a typical school if, in September, you ask the 6 year olds what they are learning in Sociology, they will answer ‘we’re studying the Mayans’. When you ask why? ‘Because it’s chapter 1 in the book’ That’s why you hear that children lose 80% of what they learn over the Summer. There is no connection between learning and life. They are just studying to pass tests but they don’t know why they are studying ‘this stuff’.
#2: Applied learning: Learning by doing. If you watch a video showing you how to change a tyre on the car, will you really know how to do it when the time comes, 5 years later, parked up on a busy road with a flat tyre?
Everything at this school is about connected and applied learning. The children still have to take written tests, but they also have to do the practical to. For example, in 6th grade, the children have to answer questions on maths ratios. Then they have to go into the lab and build a 5:1 wheel ratio.
The national anthem for middle school ‘when are we ever going to use this stuff’ never happens at this school. They know when they are going to use what they’ve learnt – tomorrow, in the lab, building something practical from the real world… (Marja is currently looking for someone to donate a helicopter…)
…this system has yet to be tested in state education. Only the independent schools are allowed to do it because they can deviate from what the government dictates should be on the national curriculum (side note: the UK suffers this too). What does that mean? The usual trap of ‘the rich get richer…’ because many of the top independent schools provide this richer learning environment. Marja founded this school purely through donations. But we need to see this type of learning on a (inter)national scale, available to everyone.
If I lived in Seattle and had a daughter, I know which school I’d be fighting to get her into.
- Seattle Girls School – Marja Brandon, Head of School
- The Art of Possibility by Benjamin Zander
- Somebodies and Nobodies by Robert W. Fuller
Another re:post worth sharing. Cultural Offering covers yet another article claiming computers and the Internet are ruining our brains – You’ll melt your brain.
The post includes a couple of great quotes:
“Will Twitter make us communicate in 140 characters or less? Not a bad idea, now that I ponder it”
I’ve written about these concerns before. Baroness Susan Greenfield is particularly vocal about how terrible the Internet is for our brains. See Do Books Matter? and Misleading Analogies. What frustrates me the most is that she is supposed to be a professional academic. Instead of predicting doom and gloom for our brains and spouting off opinions about people who use technology (in a recent interview, she dismissed people who use Twitter as the sort of person who likes to tell their mommy they’ve changed their socks, in an old interview she assumed teenagers flirting over the Internet are averse to human contact “eewww fluids”), come up with some unbiased evidence and fact-based research. In Do Books Matter? I questioned how someone like Baroness Susan Greenfield would have reacted to the invention of writing. Cultural Offering goes one better and comes up with a quote to show this is not the first time in history experts have reacted negatively to new technology:
“…he [Plato] says that if we depend on writing, we will lose the ability to remember”
Click Here to read the full post.
- You’ll melt your brain by Cultural Offering
- Friday Thought: Do Books Matter by Joining Dots
- Misleading Analogies by Joining Dots
- Susan Greenfield – is the web changing our brains, BBC interview
- The Quest for Identity in the 21st Century by Susan Greenfield, The Times book review
Over the past month, I’ve listened to Baroness Susan Greenfield three times. First, reading an article in The Sunday Times. Second, in the audience at one of her talks. Third, hearing an interview on the radio. The same topic came up at all three events (not surprising, since she has a new book to promote) – the effect new technology is having on learning. Or, rather, the disastrous effect new technology is having on learning.
And I have to say, I disagree with her argument and pessimism. Now she is a professor, at Oxford no less. And I am a mere mortal without so much as Bachelors degree to my name. But her belief seems to be that books are absolutely essential to educational development and learning. If you don’t read books, you’ll never progress beyond the mentality of a young child. It’s a wonder how we ever invented books in the first place…
Central to the argument is that children are now flitting between multiple different information mediums, nibbling lots of content but never chewing it properly before swallowing. And those pesky computer games are distorting our perception of reality. (I’d argue that, if anything, it has the opposite effect – making reality so depressingly clear that people prefer to live in the virtual.)
I agree that lots of nibbling is no substitute for a good book, if you want to dive into the theory and history of a subject. Just as books and computer games are no substitute for real-world experience. But I’m not sure the future being painted is quite as apocalyptic as the baroness believes. Computer simulations introduce all sorts of possibilities and new ways of learning. Imagine if we were living in the time when writing was just invented. The theory then would have probably been along the lines: “Writing words down will destroy the art of story-telling. It will ruin our ability to bond and form emotional connections with one another, to learn first-hand from our elders, transforming our identity of who and what we are.”
Agree, disagree? Here’s a link to one of her interviews – iD: The Quest for Identity in the 21st Century by Susan Greenfield (The Sunday Times, May 08)
Interesting article on CNET – A new crop of kids: Generation We – talking about how the latest generations are growing up adept and comfortable with technology from a very early age. Some snippets:
Gabriel, an intensely curious kid who’s about to turn 8, has been fascinated by everything from skateboarding and basketball to statistics about world extremes…. He likes to look up information about the subjects on Wikipedia with his mom and then turn to YouTube for short video clips… If he hears a likeable song in a YouTube video, he might visit Apple’s iTunes store to download the music, too.
“Driving home we’ll see a bird,” Kim said, “and then go to Wikipedia (at home) and look it up. Then once we’re online, he’ll say, ‘How about we go to YouTube?'”
Naturally, the world of business and media is fascinated with understanding how to market and sell to this new generation.
I’m interested in a different angle – how will their ability to learn be influenced and affected by these newer Internet technologies, and what will the effect be on their future?
It’s easy to assume that having the Internet is going to make our children a lot smarter a lot sooner… resources that were previously only accessible to the priviledged few are now available to all, instantly. But is that all we need?
In the book “The Social Life of Information” by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid, the authors make a very interesting comment:
The web has made learning about easier than ever. But learning to be requires the ability engage in the practice in question
…and that could be the new challenge. There will be no shortage of people able to demonstrate how much they know about all sorts of subjects. But how many people will actually be able to practice what they ‘know’. At the moment, there are still no shortcuts to becoming skilled in practice – determination, patience and effort continue to be essential ingredients.
If we become used to having instant answers to questions, will it affect our stamina for the deeper level of learning required to move from knowing about something to actually being something?
An effect from moving away from agriculture and manual labour has been that, put simply, most people aren’t as fit as they would have been 200 years ago.
Will the effect of not requiring effort to learn about subjects send our brains in the same direction as our stomachs? I hope not.